Basics Of Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of structure and properties of the matter, as well as the changes that it passes. The chemical has two main branches: organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry.
Organic chemistry is the study of substances that contain the element carbon. All that is or have already been alive contains carbon. You've probably heard the term “organic” being used incorrectly to suggest something natural. Most organic substances are burnable: plants, animals, gasoline, plastics are organic substances. Being natural does not mean being organic. Water is natural (H2O), however, is not organic.
Organic chemistry is the study of substances that do not contain the element carbon. The inorganic substances are not and were never alive, and do not burn. Metals, minerals and ammonia are examples of these substances. The air we breathe is inorganic. Inorganic doesn’t mean unnatural or unhealthy.
Matter is anything that has volume (occupies space) and mass (weight), which can be seen, touched, savored or haves odor. While we can see the lights and visible electrical sparks, they are all forms of energy. Energy is not matter, because it does not take up space or has mass.
Elements are substances that cannot be divided into simpler substances through chemical means. Currently there are 109 different known elements, and each one has its own chemical and physical properties. The whole matter in the universe is made from these 109 items, arranged below in a periodic table.
Atoms are the basic building blocks of all matter. The word atom comes from the Greek word atoms, meaning indivisible. It is the minor particle of an element that retains its properties. Atoms are the smallest units of matter and can not be divided into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means.
Just as words are formed by combining letters, molecules are formed by combining atoms. Molecules are combinations of two or more atoms that are chemically joined. There are two types of molecules: elemental and compound. Elemental molecules are chemical combinations of two or more atoms of the same element. Example: Oxygen - O2 and Ozone - O3. Chemical compounds are molecules composed of two or more atoms of different elements. Example: Sodium chloride - NaCl.
Microscopic and molecular structure of the capillary fiber.
Water and pH
How it is measured:
The pH ranges from 0 to 14. The pH of 7 indicates a neutral solution, below that a solution is ACID and above it is an ALKALINE solution. How its functionality is: Acids contract and harden the hair, and alkalis soften and dilate. Although we know the scale and what it produces, we need to know what pH is.
It is very difficult to study pH without first learning a bit about ions. Ion is an atom or molecule with an electrical charge. When a molecule is ionized, it divides in two, creating a pair of ions with opposite electrical charges, which means, one anion with a negative electric charge and one cation with a positive charge. The pH scale measures the ions.
We know that the pH of the water is 7, so it is NEUTRAL. What many of us do not know is why it is that way and what that means. Consider: a water molecule (H2O) is composed of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen, but some of the molecules do not remain united. Because of the natural ionization of water, some molecules get ionized (divided) into two separate ions: H+ and OH-.
A water molecule can be expressed as H2O, and the water natural ionization as:
H2O = H + + OH-0
The same water molecule can also be expressed as HOH and the water natural ionization as:
HOH – H+ + OH-
H+ is the acid hydrogen ion. OH- is the hydroxide ion, alkaline. Every molecule of water that ionizes yields a hydrogen ion (H +) and one hydroxide (OH-). So in pure water the concentration of acid and alkali must be equal, because each time a hydrogen ion is produced, a hydroxide ion is also produced. In pure water, no other associations possible.
This natural ionization of water explains two things:
- The water ionization makes pH possible. Only aqueous substances (with water) contain pH. Non-aqueous solutions (oil, alcohol) do not.
- The pure water is neutral because it is not acidic nor alkaline. It consists of a balance, which means that it contains the same number of hydrogen ions (H +) and hydroxide ions (OH-), so it is 50% acid and 50% alkali.
The Scale of the pH
This scale has its origin in the Danish term potenz Hidrogen, or hydrogen power, first proposed in 1909 by the Danish chemist S. P. L. Sorensen.
Just as a ruler measures length scales are used to measure quantities.
The pH scale measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution. Note that pH is written with a small 'p' (representing the amount) and a uppercase "H" (representing the Hydrogen ion (H +).
Scientific notation is used to condense large numbers with many zeros. For example, the decimal 0.0000001 expressed by this notation is 1 x 10-7, so realize the 7 as exponent, and the number expressed as a decimal, has seven decimal places. In a scientific notation, a negative exponent is the same as the number of decimal places, and each decimal point indicates a change of ten times. Another example: R $ 0.01 is a cent and R $ 0.10 are ten cents which is ten times more. With this, we affirm that each decimal extended will increase tenfold.
Logarithm means multiples of ten. Since the pH scale is logarithmic, changing one inter number represents ten times more in the pH. Example: pH 8 is ten times more alkaline than pH 7. pH 9 is a hundred times more alkaline than pH 7. (10x10 = 100)
A slight change in pH means a big change of hydrogen ions and hydroxide.
(Hydrogen Ion H+ / Hydroxide Ion OH-)
(Notation Exponentiation / With Decimal Scale)
The pH scale shows that the pH is the same number as the exponent in the scientific notation, however without the negative sign.
Pure water (H2O) has the pH 07 which is a hundred times more alkaline than the pH 5. As the pH of the natural acid mantle of skin and hair is 5, the pure water is one hundred times more alkaline than hair and skin. Pure water can make hair dilate by 20% and cause skin dryness, even having a neutral pH.